Sunday, January 21, 2018

Research

One of the important goals of the Department of Clinical Neurosciences is to foster the research and create future clinician-neuroscientists for the country. The department is determined to provide best resources in the best research environment to its research residents to address some of the most intriguing questions in the field of Clinical Neurosciences. The major advantage of our department is its heterogeneity in terms of students working in diverse yet inter-related areas of neurosciences, which provides greater opportunities for the inter-disciplinary neuroscience research in the department.

Alzheimers Disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD), is a form of dementia that gradually gets worsens over time. It affects various cognitive domains including memory, thinking, and behavior. In the early stages of dementia, brain image scans may be normal. In later stages, an MRI may show a decrease in the size of different areas of the brain. There has been no definitive prevention or cure for this entity. Early identification and treatment could help slowing down the progression of this disease.

Alzheimer's Association http://www.alz.org/

Alzheimer's and Related Disorders Society of India (ARDSI) http://www.alzheimer.org.in/

Alzheimer's Society http://www.alzheimers.org.uk/site/index.php

Alzheimers Disease Research http://www.ahaf.org/alzheimers/

Autism

Autism is a developmental disorder that appears in the first 3 years of life, and affects the brain's normal development of social and communication skills. The exact causes of these abnormalities remain unknown, but this is a very active area of research. Autism is also said to have a strong genetic basis, although the genetics of autism are complex and it is unclear whether ASD is explained more by rare mutations, or by rare combinations of common genetic variants. There are probably a combination of factors that lead to autism. Some relevent links are mentioned below.

www.autismspeaks.org

www.autism-india.org

jadd.edmgr.com

www.researchautism.net

Brain Tumors

The management of brain tumors is multidisciplinary and remains an enormous challenge. Despite decades of research, the cause of brain tumors has not been identified in many cases. With every brain tumor associated with increased disability and high rates of death; and lack of knowledge about its prevention, the study of the biology of these becomes an important priority. Advances in neuro-oncology can only be made through translating basic biology research into a clinical perspective. Our aim is to identify biomarkers and evaluate their role, so as to drive more effective therapies with a potential role for better survival of patients with these diseases. Some important links and journals in this field include,

International Brain Tumor Alliance

Society for neuro-oncology

European Association of neuro oncology

Indian Society of neuro oncology

Epilepsy

Epilepsy is the second most common neurological disorder, which results from the abnormal synchronous discharges from a group of neurons. About one-third of epilepsy patients do not become seizure free and the pathophysiology behind these resistant epilepsies is not known. Even the basic mechanism of epilepsy in the well-controlled patients is not properly understood. Aggressive focused translational research in the field of epilepsy is the need of the hour as patients suffering from epilepsy not only face profound neurological sequelaes but also psychological and social consequences. Below are the links of some of the epilepsy related websites, which provides further information about this disorder

http://www.epilepsyindia.org/ies/index.html

http://www.ilae.org/

http://www.ibe-epilepsy.org/

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1528-1167

Mitochondrial disorders

Mitochondrial disorders are a group of clinically heterogeneous multisystem disease characterized by brain–mitochondrial encephalopathies and/or muscle–mitochondrial myopathies due to alterations in the protein complexes of the electron transport chain of oxidative phosphorylation.

The precise relationship between mitochondrial DNA mutations, impairment of oxidative phosphorylation and clinical phenotypes is not well understood. The prevailing view is that defects in ATP generating capacity due to mitochondrial DNA defect leads to energy failure, cellular dysfunction and eventually cell death in the affected tissues.

United Mitochondrial Disease Foundation

Society for Mitochondria Research and Medicine, India

Mitochondrial Medicine Society

Parkinson’s Disease

Movement disorders are neurological conditions that affect the speed, fluency, quality, and ease of movement. Parkinsonism refers to a group of movement disorders that have similar features and symptoms. Idiopathic Parkinson's disease is the most common form of Parkinson’s disease also is called so because the cause for the condition is unknown.

Parkinson's disease results from the degeneration of nuclei in a number of dopamine-producing nerve cells in the brainstem. When dopamine production is depleted, the motor system nerves are unable to control movement and coordination. A few educational links are given below

Movement Disorders Virtual University

The Movement Disorder Society

Parkinsons Disease and Movement Disorders Society India

Schizophrenia

The WHO lists Schizophrenia among the most disabling medical diseases. Schizophrenia is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by delusions, hallucinations, disorganized behavior and progressive cognitive deficits. The pathophysiology of this disease remains yet unclear.Studies currently focus on understanding the clinical & pathogenetic correlates of brain abnormalities in this disorder by employing techniques including clinical / neurocognitive analyses, brain imaging (structural MRI, functional MRI, DTI & MRS), immunological assays, gene polymorphism & expression studies.

Schizophrenia Research Forum

Sleep Disorders

Sleep is a complex neurological state. The importance of sleep could be seen from the fact that people spend about one-third of their lifespan in sleep. Alterations in the quality, quantity and pattern of sleep result in sleep disorders. Sleep disorders cover a wide spectrum of diseases. Though there are more than 100 identified sleep/wake disorders. Researches during the last 50 years, and the advances made in clinical sleep medicine, have lead to more effective treatments for the myriad human sleep disorders. Some important links on this topic are mentioned below.

American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM) www.aasmnet.org

National Sleep Foundation (NSF) www.sleepfoundation.org

Indian Society for Sleep Research (ISSR) www.issr.in

Indian Sleep Disorders Association (ISDA) www.isda.co.in

World Association of Sleep Medicine (WASM) www.wasmonline.org

Traumatic Brain Injuries

Mild trauma cause either contact (impact) or inertial (acceleration or deceleration) forces that has effect on extra or intra-cellular brain parenchyma, leading to imbalance in metabolic cascade or neurotransmitter level. Majority of them are not identified at structural level (CT, MRI). But the consequences of these imbalance is highly variable among individuals. Its interesting to know these concepts, by which we can find solutions and help better recovery of patients.

Mild traumatic brain injury or concussion injury updates on NIH http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/concussion.html

International Brain Injury Association (IBIA)

http://www.internationalbrain.org/